The findings of the study on hazardous air-pollutants associated with hydraulic fracturing, carried out by the scientists from Oregon State University and the University of Cincinnati, were rebutted by the oil and gas industry advocacy group Energy In Depth.
The study, which appeared in the journal Environmental Science & Technology’s online edition, is part of a larger project co-led by the University of Cincinnati’s Erin Haynes, OSU’s Anderson, her graduate student Blair Paulik, and Laurel Kincl, director of OSU’s Environmental Health Science Center.
According to the Abstract of the study: “To address potential health impacts, passive air samplers were deployed in a rural community heavily affected by the natural gas boom.
“Samplers were analyzed for 62 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were grouped based on distance from each sampler to the nearest active well. PAH levels were highest when samplers were closest to active wells.
“Additionally, PAH levels closest to natural gas activity were an order of magnitude higher than levels previously reported in rural areas. Sourcing ratios indicate that PAHs were predominantly petrogenic, suggesting that elevated PAH levels were influenced by direct releases from the earth.
“Quantitative human health risk assessment estimated the excess lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to the measured PAHs. Closest to active wells, the risk estimated for maximum residential exposure was 2.9 in 10 000, which is above the U.S. EPA’s acceptable risk level.
“Overall, risk estimates decreased 30 per cent when comparing results from samplers closest to active wells to those farthest. This work suggests that natural gas extraction may be contributing significantly to PAHs in air, at levels that are relevant to human health.”
However, on their website, Energy In Depth argued that the study lacked scientific rigour with the sample size used for their study being too small and the chief assumption used for their research model “totally impractical”.
Below is the text from Energy In Depth’s response to the study’s findings:
Fact #1: Volunteers recruited and “trained” by anti-fracking activist group.
According to the report, “trained” volunteer property owners took samples on low-density polyethylene strips from passive air samplers on 23 properties in Carroll County, and sent them back to researchers in Oregon “in airtight polytetrafluoroethylene bags with Clip N Seal assemblies.”
Those volunteers just happened to be solicited by anti-fracking activist group Carroll Concerned Citizens (CCC), which is part of the Frackfree America National Coalition. As the researchers state in their acknowledgements, they’d like to thank, “Paul Feezel of Carroll Concerned Citizens, all for assistance with volunteer recruitment and communication.”
If that sounds familiar it’s because CCC was also heavily involved in a recent air emissions study spearheaded by an international anti-fossil fuel organization called Global Community Monitor (GCM). In that particular study, CCC was one of the 12 community organizations that took air samples in buckets lined with plastic bags in the Ohio area. However, as EID pointed out, GCM and CCC’s methods have been found to be scientifically unsound.
And, as EID’s recent white paper pointed out, this study was actually one of the reports that was used to justify the ban on fracking in New York. Not only was it conducted by GCM in partnership with CCC, it was also peer reviewed by well-known anti-fracking activists, including Sandra Steingraber, who happens to be the co-founder of New Yorkers Against Fracking.
Notably, none of these affiliations were disclosed, which goes against at least four different codes for scientific research.
Fact #2: Employs extremely small sample size; does not use random testing.
As you probably learned in your junior high science classes, sample size is essential to the scientific method of proving a hypothesis, as explained on the University of Minnesota website.
An unbiased random selection and a representative sample are also important in drawing conclusions from the results of a study, and in this report the researchers make no bones about the fact that their sampling method was anything but random. From the report:
“Sampling sites were on the private property of volunteer landowners. As a result, data do not represent a completely random sample of the population, and statistical inferences are only relevant to the portion of the population that was sampled.”
The researchers even prefaced their findings at an April meeting in Carroll County by saying the results were “not statistically significant,” according to a landowner in attendance, who emailed EID with this information. But that didn’t keep them turning around and using the results as if they were legitimate.
Fact #3: Does not account for the fact elevated PAH levels could come from wood and coal burning.
The researchers noted that they tried to place their samplers away from chimneys and roads. But the reality is that in the dead of winter in a rural area such as Carroll County, families heat their homes with wood and coal, two significant contributors to PAH emissions according to the EPA.
It is also likely that Carroll County residents were burning more wood and coal to heat their homes than is typical back in February 2014, considering it was one of the coldest winters the state’s ever had. While the researchers did mention wood burning, they immediately dismissed it:
“Wood burning is another common source of PAHs in air. Retene is a PAH that is commonly used as an indicator of biomass combustion, especially in wood. Interestingly, average retene levels did not show the same trend as other individual PAHs across distance groups. Rather, average retene levels were comparable across distance groups.”
Coal burning, though significant in the area, was not mentioned at all in the report.
Fact #4: ‘Worst case’ scenarios were assumed.
The researchers argue that their findings show there could be a slight increased risk for cancer, an additional two cancer cases for each 10,000 people. And that estimate is based on the assumption that PAH levels never change and that a person lives in the same location for 25 years and stays in that location 24 hours a day, seven days a week. According to the Akron Beacon Journal, the authors conceded that this standard is actually “totally impractical.”
As the press release issued by the researchers themselves explains, these numbers were worst-case estimates and cannot be used to predict the risk to any particular individual: “these models assume some very big things.”
It is only in the study’s maximum exposure scenarios (24 hours a day, seven days a week) that PAH levels exceed accepted EPA standards.
Fact #5: Ignores enormous amount of research finding no credible health impacts.
The researchers base their assessment on what they term the “majority of scientific literature” – including debunked studies .
Yet, they completely ignore numerous studies that have found no credible health impacts from shale development. For instance, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) has conducted extensive monitoring and found that there’s no credible threat to public health from shale-related activities. In fact, TCEQ’s months of testing in the Barnett Shale area showed “no levels of concern for any chemicals.” TCEQ added that “there are no immediate health concerns from air quality in the area.”
The Colorado Department of Public Health also installed air quality monitors at a well sites and found that concentrations of benzene “are well within acceptable limits to protect public health,” and that “concentrations of various compounds are comparatively low and are not likely to raise significant health issues of concern.”
The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection took air measurements in northeast Pennsylvania, and the agency “did not identify concentrations of any compound that would likely trigger air-related health issues associated with Marcellus Shale drilling activities.” The Pennsylvania DEP also looked into wells in southwest Pennsylvania and concluded that they “did not detect levels above National Ambient Air Quality Standards at any of the sampling sites.”
A peer-reviewed study looking at cancer incidence rates in several Pennsylvania counties found “no evidence that childhood leukemia was elevated in any county after [hydraulic fracturing] commenced.”
A report from the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection concluded that “no additional legislative rules” were required to protect public health with respect to hydraulic fracturing activities.
A report commissioned by Fort Cherry School District in Pennsylvania, which studied air emissions at a well site in Fort Cherry School District came to the conclusion that the samples “did not show anything remarkable with respect to chemicals detected in the ambient air. When volatile compounds were detected, they were consistent with background levels measured at the school and in other areas in Washington County. Furthermore, a basic yet conservative screening level evaluation shows that the detected volatile compounds were below health-protective levels.”
Further, there’s a reason Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Gina McCarthy has touted how natural gas development is leading to cleaner air. As she has said, “The pollution that I’m looking at is traditional pollutants as well as carbon. And natural gas has been a game changer with our ability to really move forward with pollution reductions that have been very hard to get our arms around for many decades.”
SOURCE: Energy In Depth
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